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Why did we get one?
I have no idea either.
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kristinmountillustration:

In addition to full illustrations, I’m also hired to do a lot of illustrative diagrams. This one shows the process of hematopoiesis, which is the development of different types of blood components from stem cells, including erythrocytes (red blood cells), platelets (which help our blood clot) and all the different types of leukocytes (white blood cells). Notice the pinkish color of the eosinophil at the bottom center. Its name comes from its attraction to the pink stain eosin. Notice also that some of the white blood cells have a grainy appearance. These types of cells are classified as granulocytes (granulo=granular; cyte=cell) and those without the grainy appearance are classified as agranulocytes. I love medical terminology!

kristinmountillustration:

In addition to full illustrations, I’m also hired to do a lot of illustrative diagrams. This one shows the process of hematopoiesis, which is the development of different types of blood components from stem cells, including erythrocytes (red blood cells), platelets (which help our blood clot) and all the different types of leukocytes (white blood cells). Notice the pinkish color of the eosinophil at the bottom center. Its name comes from its attraction to the pink stain eosin. Notice also that some of the white blood cells have a grainy appearance. These types of cells are classified as granulocytes (granulo=granular; cyte=cell) and those without the grainy appearance are classified as agranulocytes. I love medical terminology!

sugaratoms:

image credit. golgi body can be seen in green.
The golgi apparatus golgi body, is the packaging centre of a cell. Transport vesicles travel to the golgi body, and the products are modified, stores and sent elsewhere. It is found extensively in cells specialised for secretion. It consists of membranous sacs called cisternae, and it separates the contents of these from the cytosol. There is a distinct structural polarity: membranes on each side differ in molecular composition. The golgi enzymes may also modify ER producs, and the golgi apparatus can manufacture polysaccharides, and refine other products in storage. Molecular identification tags such as phosphate groups are attached to vesicles, which are budded from the golgi bodies, allowing them to recognise their target. 

sugaratoms:

image credit. golgi body can be seen in green.

The golgi apparatus golgi body, is the packaging centre of a cell. Transport vesicles travel to the golgi body, and the products are modified, stores and sent elsewhere. It is found extensively in cells specialised for secretion. It consists of membranous sacs called cisternae, and it separates the contents of these from the cytosol. There is a distinct structural polarity: membranes on each side differ in molecular composition. The golgi enzymes may also modify ER producs, and the golgi apparatus can manufacture polysaccharides, and refine other products in storage. Molecular identification tags such as phosphate groups are attached to vesicles, which are budded from the golgi bodies, allowing them to recognise their target. 

fuckyeahmolecularbiology:

Cardiovascular Clots

In the heart’s case, different most certainly can be deadly. In the series of images above, a thrombus (blood clot) protruding from an arterial entrance in a chamber of the heart is zoomed in on image by image. This type of thrombus, known as coronary thrombosis, is the usual cause of myocardial infarction (heart attack).

In the blood there are complex mechanisms which trigger blood clotting in case of damage to blood vessels; the results - a thick, mesh-like net of fibrin and erythrocytes - can be seen above. At the same time, other agents discourage the formation of clots which obstruct the blood flow in order to keep major veins and arteries clear. In arteries, the clotting process may be encouraged by the build-up of atheroma (fatty deposits) on blood vessel walls. These can easily lead to heart attack, pulmonary edema, or stroke.

Image Source: Science Photo Library.

These pictures look absolutely stunning.

jtotheizzoe:

Mapping the Wonder Inside Every Cell
Behold the biochemical pathways of the cell. For decades, these wall charts have adorned the hallways and laboratories wherever biochemists are at work. They are at once both reference and art.
The version pictured above (click here for the holycraphuge version) is state of the art, a subway map of interacting pathways, intersecting reactions, and a road map for the journey to make any building block our cells need. Each node is an enzyme or product, separated by color into metabolic subdomains. You really must head over to KEGG and play with the interactive version, where each dot comes alive, an interactive chemical structure.
I’m also a big fan of Gerard Michal’s legendary wall charts of yesteryear. Watching the evolution in design from his 1974 version to a later 1993 map, his layouts are chock full of vintage German aesthetic.

jtotheizzoe:

Mapping the Wonder Inside Every Cell

Behold the biochemical pathways of the cell. For decades, these wall charts have adorned the hallways and laboratories wherever biochemists are at work. They are at once both reference and art.

The version pictured above (click here for the holycraphuge version) is state of the art, a subway map of interacting pathways, intersecting reactions, and a road map for the journey to make any building block our cells need. Each node is an enzyme or product, separated by color into metabolic subdomains. You really must head over to KEGG and play with the interactive version, where each dot comes alive, an interactive chemical structure.

I’m also a big fan of Gerard Michal’s legendary wall charts of yesteryear. Watching the evolution in design from his 1974 version to a later 1993 map, his layouts are chock full of vintage German aesthetic.

fuckyeahmolecularbiology:

I’m a Biologist, and I Like Maths!
The Rise of Quantitative Biology
When you ask people who aren’t familiar with science - and even some of those that are - how they picture a biologist, the majority of the answers are invariably something to do with someone in a lab coat hunched over a microscope peering at a plant stem or insect leg. While there are biologists that do this - and do it very well - today’s challenges and advances in technology have bred an entirely new breed of biologist: Ones that don’t consider biology a “soft science” at all.
Over the past 10-20 years, biology has become increasingly quantitative, and the mathematical sciences have been increasingly influenced by biology. This increased understanding and importance we place on the molecular underpinnings of life have caused some to herald mathematics as “biology’s next microscope, only better” (Cohen, J.E., PloS Biology, 2004); it is expected mathematical, statistical, and computational sciences will continue to reveal unsuspected and entirely new worlds within biology, just as the microscope revealed previously unseen worlds following its invention. Conversely, biology’s ability to revoluntionise mathematics has led to it being labeled “mathematics’ next physics, only better.” Biology, in its own right, will in turn continue to spur major new developments in computation, mathematics and statistics, just as physics has done in past centuries.
This revolutionary partnership - now, by most definitions, more of a committed, long-term relationship - goes by a variety of names: Quantitative biology, computational biology, biophysics, mathematical biology, systems biology. Whatever the name you give it, it’s become an integral part of the life sciences. Biology is no longer the “science for those that don’t like maths”, the “science for people who couldn’t do physics”, or the “science of memorising things about plants and animals”; it’s a first-class quantitative science, and people should start seeing it like one.
Image: Different postulated structures of celastrol, a potent anti-inflammatory drug.

Math? And biology? Cool!

fuckyeahmolecularbiology:

I’m a Biologist, and I Like Maths!

The Rise of Quantitative Biology

When you ask people who aren’t familiar with science - and even some of those that are - how they picture a biologist, the majority of the answers are invariably something to do with someone in a lab coat hunched over a microscope peering at a plant stem or insect leg. While there are biologists that do this - and do it very well - today’s challenges and advances in technology have bred an entirely new breed of biologist: Ones that don’t consider biology a “soft science” at all.

Over the past 10-20 years, biology has become increasingly quantitative, and the mathematical sciences have been increasingly influenced by biology. This increased understanding and importance we place on the molecular underpinnings of life have caused some to herald mathematics as “biology’s next microscope, only better” (Cohen, J.E., PloS Biology, 2004); it is expected mathematical, statistical, and computational sciences will continue to reveal unsuspected and entirely new worlds within biology, just as the microscope revealed previously unseen worlds following its invention. Conversely, biology’s ability to revoluntionise mathematics has led to it being labeled “mathematics’ next physics, only better.” Biology, in its own right, will in turn continue to spur major new developments in computation, mathematics and statistics, just as physics has done in past centuries.

This revolutionary partnership - now, by most definitions, more of a committed, long-term relationship - goes by a variety of names: Quantitative biology, computational biology, biophysics, mathematical biology, systems biology. Whatever the name you give it, it’s become an integral part of the life sciences. Biology is no longer the “science for those that don’t like maths”, the “science for people who couldn’t do physics”, or the “science of memorising things about plants and animals”; it’s a first-class quantitative science, and people should start seeing it like one.

Image: Different postulated structures of celastrol, a potent anti-inflammatory drug.

Math? And biology? Cool!

fuckyeahmolecularbiology:

Bacteria direct their movement in response to certain chemicals by controlling the rotation of whip-like appendages called flagella. The sensitivity of the response can be adjusted at the signal’s target, the flagellar motor (pictured above).

thebioguru:

Echinodermata (spiny skinned)

  • Crinoidea- feather stars and lily stars
  • Asteriodea- classic starfish
  • Ophiuroidea- basket and brittle stars
  • Echinoidea- sand dollars and sea urchins
  • Holothuroidea- sea cucumbers

theinterconnectedage:

The science of Epigenetics proves that our environment affects not only our health, but the genes we pass on.

Now think of what kind of environment you live in.

Is it stressful? Is it unhealthy, polluted?
Epigenetics suggest that If we want to have healthy children we should worry about the environment we live in.

…aaaand that’s it. It’s been a hectic week making all of these notes, but in the end I think it was worth it. Fun too, in a really nerdy way. 

Want a more detailed explanation of what I’ve covered this week?

Pearson Interactive Physiology - Respiratory System

Check your knowledge by doing the quizzes in each section, no matter what odd shenanigans they put in there (you’ll know what I mean when you get there).

And hi, new followers! Thanks for, er, following. Thollowers.

Other Factors Which Influence Ventilation 

(btw that dude kinda looks like Bill Murray imo >_>)

Exercise and Ventilation

  • Ventilation increases during strenuous exercise, with depth increasing more than rate.
  • PCO2 and PO2 do not play an important role during exercise.

The peripheral chemoreceptors also respond to acids such as lactic acid, which is produced during strenuous exercise.

Central Chemoreceptors: Effect of PCO2

CO2 is the most important factor controlling the rate and depth of breathing.